Estyn defines numeracy as “the ability to apply simple numerical facts, skills and reasoning to real-life problems.”
Similarly, the Welsh Government defines numeracy as “identifying and applying numerical reasoning in order to solve a problem, and carrying out the numerical procedures which enable people to work out and show their solutions.”
Procedural knowledge focuses on the ability to recall numerical facts and procedures. Numerical reasoning focuses on the ability to apply those facts and procedures within a wide range of contexts. It is about ‘making sense’. It requires active engagement from the learner to think mathematically, choosing what to do and how to do it.